Evaluating Recreation Services, 4th Ed. - Print
Making Enlightened Decisions
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Evaluation is a process that each of us uses every day.
Professionals in any field of human services must have the means to access and assess information.
Having information is not enough, however, unless that information can be applied and used.
To organize and manage recreation services (i.e., all elements related to the various specialties in the field such as parks, tourism, sports, arts, therapeutic recreation, camping, event management), information is needed about people's preferences, needs, and behaviors and the programs, administrative structures, and resources that comprise the organizations.
To build a body of knowledge and to document the value of recreation, systematic processes are necessary. Evaluation and research can provide information that will enable "enlightened decisions."
Evaluating Recreation Services: Making Enlightened Decisions, Fourth Edition, is about systematic evaluation and research that focuses specifically on identifying explicit evaluation criteria or research questions, collecting evidence or data, and making judgments about the value or the worth of something applied to service improvement or knowledge development.
This book aims to provide a basic overview and working knowledge of procedures.
Knowing basic steps in evaluation research and having some familiarity with evaluation and research tools can help you to begin a process of lifelong learning about systematic inquiry.
List of Tables and Figures xiii About the Authors xvii Preface xix UNIT ONE—CRITERIA: Foundations for Evaluation and Research 1.0 Introduction to Criteria 1.1 The Basic Question: What is Systematic Inquiry? Systematic (Formal) Evaluations Evaluation Today From Ideas to Reality 1.2 Evaluation and Research: Viva la Difference Differences in Objectives or Purposes Sharing of Common Methods A Comparison of Evaluation and Research A Word About Theory Using Literature Reviews From Ideas to Reality 1.3 The Trilogy of Evaluation and Research: Criteria, Evidence, and Judgment Criteria Evidence Judgment Putting It All Together From Ideas to Reality 1.4 Why Evaluate: You Don’t Count if You Don’t Count New Concepts in the 21st Century Major Reasons for Evaluation Other Reasons to Evaluate Fear of Evaluation When NOT to Evaluate Knowing How to Evaluate From Ideas to Reality 1.5 Approaches to Evaluation: Models and More A Pseudo-Model: Intuitive Judgment Professional Expert Judgment Goal-Attainment Model Logic Model Goal-Free (Black Box) Model Process or Systems Approach Strengths and Weaknesses of the Models From Ideas to Reality 1.6 Those Who Fail to Plan, Plan to Fail: The Five Ps of Evaluation Evaluation Systems Personnel Policies/Administration Places (Areas and Facilities) From Ideas to Reality 1.7 From Good to Great: Evaluating Program Quality and Participants A Primer on Benefits and Outcomes Overview of Program Quality Evaluation An Example of Program Quality Participant Outcomes Five Ps Summary From Ideas to Reality 1.8 A Time for Evaluation Assessments and Planning Formative and Process Evaluation Summative and Product Evaluation From Ideas to Reality 1.9 Designing Evaluation and Research Projects: Doing What You Gotta Do Developing Plans for a Specific Evaluation Project From Ideas to Reality 94 1.10 To Be or Not to Be: Competencies and the Art of Systematic Inquiry Internal Versus External Evaluations Developing Competencies From Ideas to Reality 1.11 Doing the Right Thing: Political, Legal, Ethical, and Moral Issues Political Issues Legal Issues Ethical Issues Moral Issues A Word about Institutional Review Boards (IRB) Avoiding Problems in Evaluation and Research From Ideas to Reality UNIT TWO—EVIDENCE: Data Collection 2.0 Introduction to Evidence 2.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Data: Choices to Make Worldviews and Data Data Types Describing Differences in Data Choosing Qualitative and/or Quantitative Data Using Qualitative and Quantitative Data Together From Ideas to Reality 2.2 Choosing Designs and Methods: The Big Picture From Ideas to Reality 2.3 Trustworthiness: The Sine Qua Non of Data Collection Reliability Validity Usability From Ideas to Reality 2.4 What Are the Chances? Choosing a Sample Keys to Appropriate Sampling Sampling Errors Sampling Theory From Ideas to Reality 2.5 Choosing the Right Stuff: Measurement Instruments Tests Locating Existing Instruments Standardized Measurements Making Instrument Choices From Ideas to Reality 2.6 On Your Own Again: Developing Measurement Instruments The Process of Instrument Development Contents of Questionnaires Question Structures Close-Ended Questions With Ordered (Forced) Choices and Unordered Response Choices Wording Issues Formats and Instrument Design From Ideas to Reality 2.7 Surveys: The Winner of the Popularity Contest Response Rate Self-Administered Questionnaires Interviews From Ideas to Reality 2.8 Surveys: Administering Questionnaires and Conducting Telephone Interviews Pilot-Testing and Field Testing Implementing Questionnaires Telephone Interviews From Ideas to Reality 2.9 Surveys: Talking About Personal and Group Interviewing Approaches to Interviewing Content of Interviews Conducting Interviews Training and Supervising Interviewers Problems Associated With Interviewing Focus Interview Groups From Ideas to Reality 2.10 Electronic Surveys and Mobile Devices: The Wave of the Present and the Future Electronic Data Options Design Issues for Electronic Data Collection From Ideas to Reality 2.11 Observations: On a Clear Day You Can See Forever Roles of Observers Quantitative Observations Professional Expert Judgments Qualitative Observations From Ideas to Reality 2.12 Unobtrusive Methods: Oddball Approaches Physical Evidence Archives Unobtrusive and Covert Observations From Ideas to Reality 2.13 Experimental Designs: Focusing on Control and Interventions Characteristics of Experimental Designs Using True Experimental Designs Other True Experiments Quasi-Experimental Designs Pre-Experimental Designs Making Experimental Design Decisions From Ideas to Reality 2.14 Specific Applications to Recreation: The More the Merrier Importance-Performance Case Studies SOPLAY and SOPARC Devices to Measure Physical Activity Economic Analysis Techniques Consensus Techniques Miscellaneous Techniques From Ideas to Reality 2.15 Triangulation or Mixed Modes: Drawing on all the Tools Triangulated or Mixed-Mode Methods Triangulated Sources of Data Triangulation Using Multiple Data Collectors Cautions in Using Triangulation From Ideas to Reality 2.16 People Aren’t All the Same: Considerations for Data Collection People with Disabilities Children and Youth Older Adults Cultural Groups People With Low Socioeconomic Status Participatory Inquiry From Ideas to Reality UNIT THREE—EVIDENCE: Data Analysis 3.0 Introduction to Data Analysis 3.1 Data According to Measurement Levels of Data Describing Variables Types of Analyses From Ideas to Reality 3.2 Getting Your Data Together: Organizing and Coding Quantitative Data Using Codebooks Other Coding Issues From Ideas to Reality 3.3 Univariate Statistical Analyses: Describing What Is Frequency Counts and Percentages Central Tendency Variations in Data Characteristics From Ideas to Reality 3.4 The Word on Statistical Significance and Its Meanings From Ideas to Reality 3.5 Inferential Statistics: The Plot Thickens Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics Association Among Variables Tests of Differences between and among Groups Making Decisions about Statistics From Ideas to Reality 3.6 Hurray for Computers and Data Analyses Examples of SPSS and Excel as Statistical Programs Interpreting Statistics Computer Use With Qualitative Data Other Uses for the Computer in Data Collection and Analysis From Ideas to Reality 3.7 Qualitative Data Analysis and Interpretation: Exploring the What, How, and Why Organizing Qualitative Analysis Techniques for Data Analysis Making Interpretations From Ideas to Reality UNIT FOUR—JUDGMENT: Data Reporting 4.0 Introduction to Judgment 4.1 Using Visuals: A Picture is Worth 1,000 Words Tables Figures Infographics From Ideas to Reality 4.2 Developing Conclusions and Recommendations: The Grand Finale Writing Conclusions Making Recommendations From Ideas to Reality 4.3 Report Writing: Saving a Paper Trail Cover Executive Summary (Abstract) Table of Contents Introduction to the Project Methods Section Findings Conclusions and Recommendations Appendices General Observations About Evaluation Report Writing From Ideas to Reality 4.4 Oral Presentations: Telling the Tale Planning the Oral Presentation Using Visual Aids Other Notes on Giving the Presentation From Ideas to Reality 4.5 Evaluating Projects and Studies: Pitfalls and Problems The Process of Evaluation and Research Gremlins to Avoid Thoughts About Research Projects From Ideas to Reality 4.6 Using Evaluations and Research for Decision Making: Back to the Beginning Conducting Projects to Influence Their Use Encouraging Evaluation Use From Ideas to Reality Appendix A: Table of Random Numbers References Glossary of Terms Index