Therapeutic Recreation Processes and Techniques, 8th Ed.

Evidence-Based Recreational Therapy
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Dimensions:7 x 10
Format: This is the PRINT format of this title Paperback
Author(s): David R. Austin

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An extensive and up-to-date treatment on the topic of recreational therapy, the eighth edition of Therapeutic Recreation Processes and Techniques: Evidence-Based Recreational Therapy continues to focus on the practice of recreational therapy, with a philosophy of practice that has been consistent since the first edition in 1982.

Like prior editions, this new edition attempts to offer a theory-based, evidence-based, client-centered approach to practice, offering many new references and an expanded discussion of facilitation techniques.

This edition also emphasizes aspects of practice rated as critical in recreational therapy and offers information on recreational therapy topics such as the helping relationship, leadership, communication skills, and clinical supervision.

Table of Contents: 

About the Author

1: Basic Concepts
On Helping Others
Major Topics Covered
This Book’s Format
Reading Comprehension Questions

2: Theories and Therapies
The Eclectic Approach
Psychoanalytic Approach
Behavioral Approach
Humanistic Psychology: The Growth Psychology Approach 
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Approaches
Positive Psychology
Developed Theories
Related Theoretical Perspectives
Chapter Summary
Reading Comprehension Questions

3: Facilitation Techniques
Relaxation Techniques/Stress Management
Implications of Relaxation Techniques for Recreational Therapy
Physical Activity
Aquatic Therapy
Leisure Education/Counseling
Values Clarification
Horticulture Therapy
Therapeutic Community
Humor and Laughter
Therapeutic Use of Touch
Adventure Therapy
Assertiveness Training
Social Skills Training
Cognitive Rehabilitation 
Community Reintegration (Community Integration Programs)
Animal-Assisted Therapy
Intervening With Technology
Creative Arts
Retail Therapy
Cognitive Stimulation Therapy 
Validation Therapy
Remotivation Therapy 
Sensory Training
Reminiscence Therapy 
Chapter Summary 
Reading Comprehension Questions 
Appendix A: Relaxation Techniques
Appendix B: Guided Imagery
Appendix C: Benson Technique
Appendix D: Stretching Exercises

4: The Recreational Therapy Process
The Humanistic Perspective
High-Level Wellness
Further Defining Recreational Therapy: The Recreational Therapy Process
Client Assessment
The Interview Method
Assessment Information
Concluding Statement on Assessment: An Ongoing Process
What Constitutes the Planning Phase?
The Implementation Phase
The Evaluation Phase
Theoretical Thinking and the Recreational Therapy Process
Systematically Evaluating Theory Contained in Conceptual Models in Recreational Therapy
Application of the Synthesized Method for Theory Evaluation
Ramifications of Theory From the Health Protection/Health Promotion Model for Practice
Conceptual Models Developed for Recreational Therapy
Further Information on Conceptual Models for Recreational Therapy
Evidence-Based Practice
Chapter Summary
Reading Comprehension Questions
Appendix: Open-Ended Questions

5: Helping Others
Professional Helping
The Aim of Helping Relationships
Needed Professional Characteristics
Helping in Recreational Therapy
What Is My Sense of Self?
How Do I Deal With My Personal Needs?
What Are My Values?
What Is My Basic Philosophy?
Resources for Self-Examination
Professional Ethics
Other Key Core Characteristics
Additional Major Characteristics for Recreational Therapists
The Therapeutic Relationship
Cultural Competence
Chapter Summary
Reading Comprehension Questions
Appendix: Self-Concept Exercises

6: Communication Skills
Effective Therapeutic Communications
What Is Communication?
Success in Verbal Communication
Problems With Directives
On Listening
Preparing to Listen: External Barriers to Listening
Listening Skills Development
Additional Verbal Techniques
Barriers to Therapeutic Communication
Communication in Success–Failure Situations
Nonverbal Communication
Cultural Diversity in Nonverbal Communication
Gender Differences and Communication Patterns
Summary: Nonverbal Communication
Communication With Clients With Specific Needs
Interviewing: A Form of Communication
Chapter Summary
Reading Comprehension Questions
Appendix A: Communication Style Analysis
Appendix B: Listening Exercises
Appendix C: Verbal Response Identification Exercise
Appendix D: Feedback Exercise
Appendix E: Nonverbal Cue Exercises
Appendix F: Interview Exercise

7: Being a Leader: Group Leadership Skills
Basic Leadership Components
Leadership Styles
Leadership Roles
Recreational Therapy Groups and Structures
Group Elements
Selecting Activities
Developing a Proposal for a New Group Program
Stages of Group Development
Evaluation of the Group
Group Functions of Members
Group Roles of Members
Special Challenges and Strategies for Group Leaders
Group Development
Phases in Conducting Recreational Therapy Activity Programs for Groups
Group Processing
Principles for Group Leadership
Reading Comprehension Questions

8: Specific Leadership Tasks and Concerns
The Client Documentation Task
Learning to Chart Effectively
Incident Report Documentation
Principles in the Teaching–Learning Process
Motivating Client Change: Transtheoretical Model and Motivational Interviewing
International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)
Leadership and Understanding Transactions: The Social Psychology of Recreational Therapy
Learned Helplessness
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Social Support
Social Facilitation
Social Learning Theory
Attributional Processes
Reading Comprehension Questions

9: Clinical Supervision
The Purposes of Clinical Supervision
The Status of Clinical Supervision
Clinical Supervision Versus Administrative Supervision
Clinical Supervision and Therapy
A Strength-Based Approach to Clinical Supervision
Supervisees’ Development and Supervisory Relationships
Models for Clinical Supervision
Roles of Clinical Supervisors
Establishing the Supervisory Alliance With Emerging Professionals
Supervision Goals
Facilitation of the Learning Environment
Clinical Supervisor Traits
Self-Assessment for Clinical Supervisors
Developmental Stages of Supervisors
Ethical Concerns in Clinical Supervision
Multiculturalism and Diversity
Clinical Supervision Evaluation
Setting Up a Clinical Supervision Program
Benefits of Providing Clinical Supervision
Chapter Summary
Reading Comprehension Questions

10: Health and Safety Considerations
Antiepileptic Drug Therapy
Psychotropic Drugs
Antimania Drugs
Drugs for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Mechanical Aids
Chapter Summary
Reading Comprehension Questions


About the Author(s)

David R. Austin

Dr. Austin’s research has focused upon the social psychology of recreational therapy and professional preparation. Topics of over 140 publications have included attitudes toward serving persons with disabilities, burnout, and recreational therapy curricula.

He is the author or coauthor of five widely used textbooks:

Dr. Austin produced 23 instructional videos through the federally funded Recreation Therapy Video (RTV) Project, and he is author of the Health Protection/Health Promotion Model of Practice. Dr. Austin has served on editorial boards for the Journal of Leisure Research, Schole, Annual in Therapeutic Recreation, and Leisure Today.

He is a past president of ATRA, the Society of Park and Recreation Educators, and the Academy of Leisure Sciences, as well as a past member of the NRPA Board of Trustees. Dr. Austin is a fellow in the Academy of Leisure Sciences and a founding fellow of the National Academy of Recreational Therapists.

He is the only individual to have received the NTRS Distinguished Service Award, the ATRA Distinguished Fellow Award, and the SPRE Distinguished Fellow Award. He has been awarded Indiana University‘s highest teaching award, the Frederic Bachman Lieber Memorial Award for Distinguished Teaching.

He has been named to the Union College Hall of Fame and was presented the Brightbill Award by the University of Illinois. In 1998, Dr. Austin received the NRPA Literary Award.

Dr. Austin participates in Ask the Author, a Sagamore initiative that enables professors who adopt titles to communicate with the author and really understand what the book is about and how any ancillaries are intended to be used.